Antimicrobial resistance monitoring in bacteria of animal origin
Until 2013, the legal basis for AMR monitoring in bacteria of animal origin was the Directive 2003/99/EC, implemented by the National Legislative Decree No 191/2006, and by the Decision 407/2007/EC.
With the Decision 2013/652/EU, the European Commission has implemented methodologies and extended both sources and bacterial agents for the harmonized monitoring and reporting on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria.
The harmonized monitoring comparability of information obtained at EU level, and allowing Member States to organize and facilitate the monitoring planning and reporting activities, as expected by the present decision, identifying the start date of these activities from 1th January 2014.
Every other year, a representative sample of epidemiological units of broiler chicken and fattening turkeys (flocks: 2014-2016-2018-2020), fattening pigs and bovines <12months (holdings: 2015-2017-2019) are surveyed at slaughter along with meats thereof sampled at retail (meat from pigs and bovines: 2015-2017, 2019) and broiler and turkey meat (2016-2018-2020).
Samples are submitted to the isolation, identification of selected bacterial agents (major zoonotic and indicator commensal/opportunistic bacteria) and their susceptibility testing towards specific panels of antimicrobials.
Monitoring and reporting activity covers the following bacteria: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacter coli: voluntary), indicator commensal Escherichia coli, ESBL/AmpC- and carbapenemase-producing E. coli, (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium: voluntary).